Page 8 - Vol.39-No.1
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        cocoa is grown within an estate cropping  as the ‘jorquette’. These buds grow into
        system tall leguminous trees like Erythrina  horizontally displayed fan branches. When
        species are planted to provide upper-storey  cocoa trees are planted at a sufficiently
        shade. And much shorter legumes like Gli-  close spacing and are properly pruned
        ricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala  to leave 4-5 growth points at the ‘jor-
        and various types of Musa (banana and  quette’ the branches of neighbouring trees
        plantain) to provide an additional layer of  will overlap to form a closed canopy. The
        shade foliage just above the cocoa canopy.  overall aim of pruning is to produce a tree
          Provision of shade for cocoa by taller   canopy shaped like an inverted cone with
        trees in mixed stands is aided by harnessing   removal of all unwanted growth below.
        cocoa’s propensity for mutual self-shading.   Too much direct sunlight falling on the
        After several years of growth the terminal  cocoa canopy reduces the rate and the
        bud dies and in doing so stimulates some  quality of foliar growth and cocoa pod
        half dozen lateral buds at a position known  production, antagonises insect pests like
                                            cocoa mirids or capsids (Miridae) and per-
                                            mits the growth of sun-loving grass and
                                            broad-leaf weeds with which shade-loving   Under the deep shade of the cocoa
                                            cocoa trees cannot compete.             canopy (Picture Dr Terry Mabbett)
                                              That said the low-light, high-humidity   Shade provision in cocoa and its role
                                            microclimate which is maintained within a   in pest, disease and management is very
                                            closed cocoa canopy encourages moisture   much a question of balance. Enough shade
                                            loving fungus-like pathogens such as Phy-  to minimise mirid activity and prevent
                                            tophthora, as well as epiphytes including   strong competition from sun-loving tropi-
                                            lichens, algae, mosses, ferns and bromeliads   cal grasses but with sufficient aeration and
                                            over the trunk and branches of the trees.   maintenance of humidity levels to prevent
          Aim of cocoa pruning is to promote the   Cocoa is what it is with specific strengths   outbreak of diseases such as Phytophthora
           growth of horizontally-displayed fan   and weaknesses because of the natural
           branches at the ‘jorquette’ to provide                               pod rot and stem canker caused by fun-
           mutual shading by the closely-spaced   deep shade environment in which it nat-  gus-like Phytophthora pathogens, as well
           trees and a closed canopy offering an   urally grows.                as copious, excessive growth of epiphytes
                  overall deep shade
                (Picture Dr Terry Mabbett)                                      on the cocoa trees.
                                                                                                     Circle 7 on enquiry card


          Seipasa, a Spanish company specialized                                as Portugal, France, Turkey, Mexico, the
        in the development, formulation and man-                                United States, Peru, Morocco and Ivory
        ufacture of bioinsecticides, biofungicides,                             Coast.
        biostimulants and fertilizers, has announced
        the launch in Spain of Fungisei, the fun-                                   High value-added in
        gicide of microbiological origin for the                                       disease control
        control of diseases such as Botrytis,
                                                                                 Seipasa’s CEO has said that, with Fung-
        mildew, powdery mildew or mottle in   high efficacy and purity, the formulation of  isei, Seipasa provides farmers with a high
        a wide variety of crops.
                                            which is patented by Seipasa. The key to  value-added tool for the control of high
          Pedro Peleato, the company’s CEO, has  the product’s action lies in its exclusive  impact diseases in crops.
        celebrated the recent obtaining of the  formulation, which protects the micro-  “Seipasa has always been one step ahead
        phytosanitary registration in Spain by the  bial stability of the active ingredient,   in the design of natural origin solutions in
        Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.  guarantees its conservation capacity   the fight against pests and diseases. Our
          “Fungisei is much more than a new entry   and provides very high efficacy in the   ability to anticipate change almost 25
        in our portfolio of biocontrol solutions. It   field. All this in a liquid formulation free   years ago is what has brought us this far
        is the culmination of years of research,   of chemical preservatives.   and Fungisei is precisely the most accu-
        perseverance, hard work and effort to go   Fungisei is classified by the Europe-  rate example of that business vision of
        one step further in everything that mi-  an Commission as a Low Risk product,  putting ourselves at the farmer’s side,
        crobiology can bring to the control of  which certifies its low impact in all aspects  understanding their needs and giving
        diseases in agriculture”, said Mr Peleato.  of its use and application.   them the tools they need”, added Pedro
          Fungisei is a microbiological fungicide   In addition to Spain, Fungisei is also reg-  Peleato.
        developed from a Bacillus subtilis strain of  istered in a wide range of countries such
                                                                                                    Circle 8 on enquiry card
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